Welcome to episode 75 of the Audio PANCE and PANRE PA Board Review Podcast.
Join me as I cover ten PANCE and PANRE Board review questions from the SMARTYPANCE course content following the NCCPA™ content blueprint (download the FREE cheat sheet).
This week we will be covering ten general board review questions based on the NCCPA PANCE and PANRE Content Blueprints.
Below you will find an interactive exam to complement the podcast.
The Audio PANCE and PANRE Physician Assistant Board Review Podcast
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Podcast Episode 75: Ten Question PANCE and PANRE Podcast Quiz
The following questions are linked to NCCPA Content Blueprint lessons from the Smarty PANCE and PANRE Board Review Website. If you are a member you will be able to log in and view this interactive video lesson.
1. A 5-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department after drinking a bottle of drain cleaner. It is unknown how much the child drank. She has a past medical history of Down syndrome and obesity. The patient’s vitals are unremarkable. Physical exam is notable for a child in no acute distress. She is tolerating her oral secretions and is interactive. Inspection of the oropharynx is unremarkable. Which of the following is the appropriate management of this patient?
- Dilute hydrochloric acid
- Polyethylene glycol
2. A 27-year-old man presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle collision. The patient was a front seat unrestrained driver in a head-on collision. The patient’s echocardiogram (ECG) is notable only for sinus tachycardia. His temperature is 99.5°F (37.5°C), blood pressure is 107/58 mmHg, pulse is 120/min, respirations are 17/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. The patient is given 2 liters of Ringer lactate solution and morphine. Initial workup demonstrates that the patient’s pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and troponins are elevated. The patient is currently complaining of chest pain. Physical exam is notable for an uncomfortable young man with bruising over his chest wall. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
- Cardiac contusion
- Myocardial infarction
- Pulmonary contusion
- Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
3. A 33-year-old woman presents to her primary care PA for a wellness check-up. She states that recently she has been feeling well other than headaches that occur occasionally, which improve with ibuprofen and rest. She has a past medical history of hypertension and headaches and is currently taking hydrochlorothiazide. Her temperature is 99.2°F (37.3°C), blood pressure is 157/108 mmHg, pulse is 90/min, respirations are 14/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. Physical exam reveals a young woman who appears healthy. A normal S1 and S2 are auscultated on cardiac exam, and her lungs are clear with good air movement bilaterally. From her previous visit, it was determined that she has an elevated aldosterone and low renin level. Laboratory values are ordered as seen below.
Na+: 139 mEq/L
Cl-: 100 mEq/L
K+: 3.7 mEq/L
HCO3-: 29 mEq/L
BUN: 20 mg/dL
Creatinine: 1.1 mg/dL
Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
- Benign essential hypertension
- Cushing syndrome
- Narrowing of the renal arteries
- Primary hyperaldosteronism
4. A 24-year-old man is brought in to the emergency room after being retrieved by firefighters from a burning building. The patient is responding coherently to questions but reports pain secondary to a burn on his leg. He states he also has a headache and feels dizzy. His temperature is 98.5°F (36.9°C), blood pressure is 129/66 mmHg, pulse is 126/min, respirations are 14/min, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. Physical exam is notable for a confused young man with dry and flushed skin. The cardiopulmonary exam reveals a normal S1 and S2, as well as clear breath sounds bilaterally. The patient’s neurological exam is within normal limits. Towards the end of his exam, the patient begins vomiting. The dermatologic exam reveals a superficial burn covering 1% of the patient’s body over his right leg. Which of the following is the best next step in management for this patient?
- 100% oxygen
- CT scan of the head
- Normal saline
5. A 42-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident. She complains of lower back pain and some minor abdominal pain. The patient has a past medical history of obesity and type II diabetes. Her current medications include atorvastatin, metformin, and glyburide. A FAST exam is performed in the trauma bay and does not reveal any signs of intra-abdominal bleeding. Her temperature is 98.2°F (36.8°C), blood pressure is 130/77 mmHg, pulse is 90/min, respirations are 16/min, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. Ultrasound findings are notable for multiple gallstones in the gallbladder. The patient is given naproxen. Which of the following is the best next step in management?
- CT scan of the abdomen
- NPO, IV fluids, and broad-spectrum antibiotics
- Perform a cholecystectomy this hospital visit
- Schedule an outpatient cholecystectomy
- Supportive therapy
6. A 60-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with dizziness. She states it started this morning when she woke up from bed and was severe causing her to vomit. The episode resolved in 1 minute. The patient has a past medical history of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin and metoprolol. She recently recovered from a cold a few days ago. Her temperature is 99.0°F (37.2°C), blood pressure is 174/99 mmHg, pulse is 115/min, respirations are 12/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. Physical exam is notable for a well-appearing woman. Her neurological exam including cranial nerves and gait is within normal limits. The patient is laid flat in the bed which causes an episode of dizziness with notable nystagmus and vomiting. She feels better after 1 minute. The patient’s ECG is within normal limits. Lab values are notable for an INR of 3.5. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of this patient’s symptoms?
- Increased endolymph production
- Inflammation of the vestibular apparatus
- Inflammation of the vestibulocochlear apparatus
- Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
7. An 18-year-old male presents to his primary care provider with his parents for a sports physical. He was last seen in the clinic several months ago when he was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He was started on methylphenidate at that time, and the patient now reports improvement in his ability to concentrate in school and at home. He hopes to play baseball in college and has begun lifting weights daily in preparation for baseball season. The patient reports that he eats a healthy diet to fuel his exercise regimen. His parents have no concerns and are pleased with the recent improvement in his grades. On physical exam, the patient has tall stature with average muscle mass for his age. He has no dysmorphic features. His chest has a normal appearance other than mild gynecomastia. The patient has sparse facial hair and a moderate amount of coarse pubic hair that extends across the pubis and spares the medial thighs. His testes are small and firm. Due to the latter, laboratory testing is performed and reveals the following:
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): 42 mIU/mL (Reference range: 4-25 mIU/mL)
- Luteinizing hormone (LH): 38 mIU/mL (Reference range: 6-23 mIU/mL)
Which of the following is the most likely etiology of this patient’s presentation?
- Anabolic steroid use
- CGG trinucleotide repeat disorder
- CTG trinucleotide repeat disorder
- Failure of neuronal migration
- Meiotic nondisjunction
8. A 65-year-old man presents to the emergency department for sudden weakness. The patient states that he was at home enjoying his morning coffee when his symptoms began. He says that his left arm suddenly felt very odd and weak thus prompting him to come to the ED. The patient has a past medical history of diabetes, COPD, hypertension, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and PTSD. He recently fell off a horse while horseback riding but claims to not have experienced any significant injuries. He typically drinks 5-7 drinks per day and his last drink was yesterday afternoon. His current medications include insulin, metformin, atorvastatin, lisinopril, albuterol, and fluoxetine. His temperature is 99.5°F (37.5°C), blood pressure is 177/118 mmHg, pulse is 120/min, respirations are 18/min, and oxygen saturation is 93% on room air. On physical exam, you note an elderly man who is mildly confused. The cardiopulmonary exam demonstrates bilateral expiratory wheezes and a systolic murmur along the right upper sternal border that radiates to the carotids. Neurological exam reveals cranial nerves II-XII as grossly intact with finger-nose exam mildly abnormal on the left and heel-shin exam within normal limits. The patient has 5/5 strength in his right arm and 3/5 strength in his left arm. The patient struggles to manipulate objects such as a pen with his left hand. The patient is given a dose of diazepam and started on IV fluids. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?
- Berry aneurysm rupture
- Bridging vein tear
- Cerebellar bleeding
- Hypertensive encephalopathy
- Lacunar stroke
9. A 26-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with abdominal pain. She states that she was walking up the stairs at work when she felt sudden and severe abdominal pain followed by nausea and vomiting. Her past medical history is noncontributory and she is not currently taking any medications. Her temperature is 99.7°F (37.6°C), blood pressure is 122/78 mmHg, pulse is 120/min, respirations are 17/min, and oxygen saturation is 98% on room air. Physical exam is notable for an absence of abdominal tenderness, a left adnexal mass, and left adnexal tenderness. A transvaginal ultrasound demonstrates free fluid surrounding the ovary with edema and the presence of doppler flow. A urinary pregnancy test is negative. The patient’s symptoms persisted after ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Which of the following is the best next step in management?
- CT scan of the abdomen
- MRI of the pelvis
- Observation and serial abdominal exams
10. A 72-year-old man is brought into the emergency department by emergency medical services. He looks disheveled and states that he is homeless. He has bruising over his arms and legs and states that he does not have a regular source of nutrition. He denies prior medical conditions but states that he still smokes one pack of cigarettes per day. On exam, the patient’s vital signs are normal, but he appears extremely malnourished. His gums are swollen and bleeding and his tongue is unusually smooth. The hair on his arms is pinwheel-shaped. What is the most likely cause?
- Iron deficiency
- Vitamin B3 deficiency
- Vitamin C deficiency
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Vitamin K deficiency
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